Trail Trees: Fact or Fiction?

Ever been on a trail and seen a crooked tree that almost seems like it is marking the trail?  If you have, you might have noted they seem unnatural and out of place.  The tree is bent at sharp angles and often take on an unusual shape.  The sharp angles and unique shape characterize a human design rather than the gentle curves that one would expect from natural forces like wind and weather.

I first learned about trail trees in the book How to Read Nature by Tristan Gooley.  He briefly mentioned trail trees in the book. I then recalled seeing one at Shenandoah National Park. Not really looking for them, I again saw one marking a trail at Allegany State Park. I became interested and began to research the phenomena more fully.

Trail Tree at Shenandoah National Park on the Stony Man Trail

Native Americans used these trees to mark a network of trails. The trees were also thought  to mark sacred areas, locations of water and food, warn travelers of danger or mark culturally significant landmarks.  The trees are known by several names such as trail tree, trail marker tree, signal trees, thong tree or prayer tree.

Parts of a Tail Tree (Source:

To be a  trail tree, first of all, it must be old enough to have been alive when Native American tribes still lived in the area. The bend is about four or five feet off the ground. The bend  bend is a sharp right angle.  The tree then runs parallel the earth for a measure, and turns sharply up again, towards the sky. They will indicate some sort of feature of the land, whether it’s a trail, a spring, or a place to ford a river.

Unsure if you are looking at a trail tree?  The Trail Tree Project has a page with typical and atypical trees.

The first record of trail marker trees appeared in a document called “Map of Ouilmette Reservation with its Indian Reminders dated 1828–1844”. This map shows actual drawings and locations of existing trail marker trees.  The first known research on trail trees is found in the February 1940 edition of Natural History Magazine, where Raymond E. Janssen mentions their distribution in the Great Lakes region. Jenssen wrote “The casual observer views them merely as deformed freaks; but careful observation and comparison of the nature of the deformities indicate that these trees did not acquire their strange shapes simply by accident.”

Since then, a researcher Dennis Downes and president of President and Founder of the Great Lakes Trail Marker Tree Society, has taken a deep dive into the phenomena of bent trees. He has spent more than 30 years researching and educating people on bent trees.  Downes has compiled 100’s of photographs of the trees and has visited many trail tree sites.  

Think you have found a trail tree?  Send it to the Trail Tree Project.  This registry, part of the, is attempting to document all known trail trees before time, disease and urbanization destroy them.  They will use this registry to better under the significance of trail trees.

10 thoughts on “Trail Trees: Fact or Fiction?”

  1. We’ve found and documented dozens of trees in Izard County, Arkansas – many of them standing along documented routes of the Bendge Detachment of the Trail of Tears. We’ve recently strted a Facebook page dedicated to the “Trail of Trees” thory that suggest many of these trees were fashioned as groups of Native-American forced migrants made their way from the east to “Indian Territory” during the “Indian Removal” period.
    The page is “Trail of Trees: Ozarks Trail Trees”

    1. Yes I live in Natchitoches, La my name is Mike, a couple of years ago while hunting I came across a tree that had to be a marker tree. When I got home I looked the idea up and it has to be one. I didn’t take a picture of it but I will this year when it get colder where the snakes won’t be out so much. We have a lot of different kinds of poison ones here. I will send a picture when I get it. But I’m sure it is a market tree it is so cool.

  2. Christina Triplett

    Most photographs like the one with the two hikers sitting on the tree above are not of Indian made trees. Note the size of the tree? It is more like 20 years old MAX. Not 200 years old. We had numerous small 4-5” wide oaks, elms and maples on our property in 2002’ by 2020’ they are bigger in diameter than the photo. We also have numerous trees like the bent ones in our woods all are less than 50 years old so not done by Indians either.

    1. It is my understanding that the “bent” trees, marker trees go through stress growth in the reshaping process and can therefore be about half the diameter of natural trees their age. There is very interesting reading out there… I’m intrigued. Thank you.

  3. I live at the foot by of Prentice Cooper, Walden’s Ridge or Suck Creek are other names for the area. I’m in Marion Co. Just over the ridge outside of Chattanooga TN. I know where at least 3 of these trees are. 2 are be alongside the road that travels over Walden’s Ridge. A third I noticed on a turn off from the main road. It is the main road along the mountain top and is behind a house. I have never plotted their location exactly to share but they are visible staring off as you ride. The 2 along the main road are both off behind the guard rails of the 2 largest curves. The curves are almost u shaped as you travel towards Marion Co from Hamilton Co. The 3 trees are located on the Marion Co. side within a few miles of each other. I have seen others but smaller trees that I wouldn’t think to be old enough.
    Love history and grew up local appreciating the details of nature around me.

  4. The concept of Indian tree marker seems very speculative to me. My guess is that most were formed naturally when trees fell in the forest and bent over saplings. The bent saplings would be attracted to sunlight and start growing up. Eventually the fallen tree would decay and leave the misshapen tree behind. The fact that trees are found that are now found but are too young to be considered trail markers indicates that they could all be formed naturally. Very romantic idea but not much evidence.

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